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1. What is OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) ?
OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) is a surface light source made from organic materials. The OLED structure have four layers: EML, ETL, HTL and HIL. The light emitting layer is EML. Other layers is to optimize the current so that EML layer produces more light. Benefits of OLED Panels: No glare - The light from the OLED is very soft and does not glare. No heat – The OLED Panel is easy to handle and produces very little heat (<35℃). No UV - The OLED Panel produces no UV-light. Very thin, light and bendable – offers new possibilities for luminaire design. Among all benefits, the spectrum of OLED is closer to the spectrum of sunlight than that of other light sources, which enables the most natural artificial light.
2. What is Bamboo fiber tissue paper ?
1. What material do you use in producing toilet paper? We use 100% virgin bamboo pulp, no any recycled or wood material. 2. Is bamboo a tree or a glass? Actually, bamboo belongs to grass, not a tree. 3. Will the bamboo drain off like trees because of cutting ? Bamboo is a self regenerating raw material with a continuous production of new shoots. It does not die when it is cut down, it replenishes itself. 4. Why bamboo is better to produce tissue, comparing with wood? Because it is a Eco friendly, highly renewable, fastly growing resource which is promoted by all over the world. Now bamboo products is more and more accepted by environmentalism and vegetarian. 5. Does the bamboo cutting impact the habitat of panda? The bamboo we use for making tissue is different specification from the bamboo for panda. We use bamboo in our own bamboo forest which is managed by our management team. 6. Is the tissue made from bamboo soft or not? 100% virgin bamboo pulp toilet paper is rather soft and water absorbing. Bamboo is highly water absorbent, able to take up three times its weight in water. Bamboo grows without fertilizers or pesticides , as a result, plantations can easily be kept organic. 7. Can you make our label on the tissue package? Yes, we can print your label, your logo or your brand name on the package. 8. Can the customers choose the embossing pattern on the tissue? The embossing pattern is specified by Tianzhu Paper, which is the same. If you want to make your own embossing pattern, we can help you customize a machine for making this. But there are quantity and cost limited. 9. Can you provide the samples for customers? Yes, we can produce samples according to customer's requirements, but the express fee should be paid by the customers.
3. When was Sharp established?
Q1 When was Sharp established? Sharp was originally founded as a metalworking shop by Tokuji Hayakawa in 1912. In 1935, it was incorporated as Hayakawa Metal Works Institute Co. with capital assets 300,000 yen at that time. In 1970, the Company was renamed Sharp Corporation. Q2 When was Sharp first listed on the Tokyo and Osaka Stock Exchanges? Sharp was first listed on the Osaka Stock Exchange* in 1949 and on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1956. Now, Sharp's shares are listed only on the Tokyo Stock Exchange due to integration of the cash equity markets of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Osaka Securities Exchange on July 16, 2013. Q3 When does Sharp announce financial results? Please see IR Calendar. Q4 Where can I view past financial results? Please see Financial Material. Q5 Where can I view the annual report? Please see Annual Report. Q6 On which stock exchanges are Sharp's shares listed? Sharp's shares are listed on Tokyo in Japan. Q7 What is Sharp's securities code? Sharp's securities code is 6753 in Japan. Q8 I would like to know about ownership and share distribution of Sharp shares. Ownership of Sharp shares as of September 30, 2015 breaks down as follows. Japanese individual shareholders 46.43% Japanese financial institutions* 26.21% Foreign shareholders 16.79% Other Japanese corporations 8.80% Japanese securities companies 1.15% Treasury stock 0.62% Pension trust funds and investment trusts (2.45%) are included in this category. Q9 Where can I obtain information on shareholders' meeting? Please see Shareholders' Meeting. Q10 Where can I get Sharp's shareholder services? Please refer to our transfer agent: The Mizuho Trust & Banking Co., Ltd. Stock Transfer Agency Department, Head Office Q11 I would like to know about trends in cash dividends. Cash dividends per share of common stock are as follows. FY2015 (Year Ending March 31, 2016) 0 0 (forecast) 0 (forecast) Q12 I would like to know about Sharp's takeover defense plan. By approval of the shareholders at the 120th Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders held on June 25, 2014,Sharp continued the “Plan Regarding Large-Scale Purchases of Sharp Corporation Shares (Takeover Defense Plan)”, the effective term of which ends at the conclusion of the 123rd Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders.
4. What is LED Color Uniformity and Consistency ?
Color Uniformity and Consistency An Introduction to Color Uniformity and Consistency We are all born as wonderful detectors of light, intuitively seeing differences in color and brightness. Lighting professionals know that people respond emotionally to light and color, and use its consistency to draw us in, like moths to a glowing light. Measuring color with the MacAdam Ellipse Most of human sensory information is visual, coming to us through reflected light. Color consistency describes the non-variation in color from light source to light source, and fixture to fixture. We often don’t realize that we are influenced by the uniformity of color, but we always respond to it. Let’s say you drive by two gas stations. Station A is illuminated throughout by bright white LEDs, while Station B’s lights vary from yellow to white and one panel is dim. You will likely go to Station A because its color consistency feels comforting and high quality, even if you aren’t conscious of that decision. The difference in color between two lights is defined by an industry-specific standard called the MacAdam Ellipse. Each time the human eye can detects a color shift, it is measured as a MacAdam Ellipse step. In a range of 7 steps, the smaller the step, the more consistent lights are in color. Matching colors on the blackbody curve Color matching looks for the color consistency between light sources. Light appears white as it runs along a blackbody curve through the center of the color spectrum. When phosphor-based sources like LEDs vary from the blackbody, that variation is referred to as a tint. Light sitting above the blackbody curve has a green or yellow tint, and light below has a blue or pink tint. Color points that are plotted close together on the blackbody curve appear to match. Seasoned manufacturers create products with a tighter distribution of color points and less variation in tint. This results in smaller MacAdam Ellipses, satisfied lighting specifiers and, most importantly, a great user experience. Light sources with color points that do not match are less effective. Back at Station B, the outside canopy is lit with white LEDs, all 4000K, from the same brand and manufacturer. But one panel has a green tint, the next panel is yellowish, and the third is a little pink. These unmatched tints trigger the emotional discomfort that drives you to the beautifully matched white lights of Station A. Impacting color with lighting optics Beyond the light source, the optical components of a fixture can impact the tint. How the luminaire is designed optically—the amount of light it transmits, absorbs or reflects—will change the nature of its color point. Station A gets its appealing consistency using identical white LEDs that are 2-step MacAdam Ellipse. But suppose those LEDs are placed in different fixtures. One fixture has a reflector with high reflectivity so only miniscule amounts of light get absorbed and the color point doesn’t change. The other fixture uses a diffuser made of green glass, which might absorb different spectrums of light and affect the color point of the fixture. Once fixtures are designed with different optics, their LEDs get a warmer or cooler tint and the seamlessness of the system is gone. Lighting developers, manufacturers and specifiers must work together to preserve the consistency of color and holistically improve the consumer experience—and keep drawing us into the lights.
5. What is Smart Lighting?
Smart Lighting An Introduction to Smart Lighting Technology advances are converging today to create lighting solutions that provide you with responsive control to occupant activities. This paradigm shift is achieved by bringing intelligence to the luminaire and providing a powerful platform for the present and future. Integration The solution of this new paradigm is the integration of light sources, drivers and sensors that are typically stand-alone. Light sources are now closely integrated with the power conversion traditionally provided by an LED driver. An integrated product with one brain creates the opportunity to provide advanced control, networked communication and expansion of lighting in innovative, cost-effective ways. The result is a better way to light offices, retail stores, schools, hospitals and warehouses. In a store, lighting can draw attention to a displayed product by brightening a spotlight as shoppers walk down an aisle. Similarly, lighting can dim in employees’ cubicles when they are away, and then restore to their preferred level upon return. Evolution These systems are all “smart lighting,” an evolution of sensors and human input that determines how much light should be provided in a specific environment. Lights are always connected and ready, but you tell them what, when and how they should perform. Together, multiple control strategies create lighting that is context sensitive, responsive to occupants, and reactive to new information sources for both current and future needs. With networked lighting, the decision-making or “smarts” can reside in the luminaire, a centralized control system or a hybrid approach. A key feature of smart lighting is that it’s configurable to meet the requirements of the facility. Lights can be adjusted to provide the minimum or maximum amount of light required. The dimming curve can be switched from a logarithmic response to a linear response, or even to a custom response. Mobile applications make this configuration easy. And wireless communication allows you to configure without getting on a ladder or manipulating the luminaire. Challenges One challenge is that lighting controls have generally used proprietary networks. While open standards such as DALI and DMX512 have long been available, extending the network to smart fixtures has required different and, at times, cumbersome solutions. New smart platforms and emerging standards will provide simpler solutions to these challenges. Remote communication using real-time or historical data—local or from the cloud—can be done using an application on a mobile device or computer. Through this software, it will be possible for you to remotely configure, control and retrieve luminaire data. Benefits Smart lighting has the ability to make people feel better and be more productive, while providing cost effective solutions. Control the color points of lighting. A smart platform provides a highly robust way to adjust the color temperature of lights, eliminating the need for expensive multi-channel drivers to provide tunable white. For instance, an office building can be lit with invigorating cool lights in the morning and early afternoon to provide visual acuity and raise alertness, and then transition to warmer light in the late afternoon and early evening. This change mimics the color of light that naturally and dynamically changes throughout the day. Meet energy code requirements. Building energy codes continue to require expansion of lighting control strategies such as daylight perimeter control or occupancy sensors. The best way to prepare for this future is by extending the network out to individual luminaires. Bloom SCX LTD. provide a complete, intelligent electronics solution for luminaire manufacturers to enable the smart lighting revolution. Our new smart lighting platform has the ability to provide the desired amount of light, at the desired time, with the flexibility to support multiple open and proprietary protocols.
6. What are the benefits of LED?
LEDs are playing a key role in making sure people and places have clean, efficient, affordable light. Industry-wide adaption and incredible innovations are underway. Let’s look at the many benefits of LED lighting and its important effect on the economy, ecology and consumers.
 Economy: Live long and phosphor LEDs are one of the most energy efficient and cost effective light sources available on the market. Their low power consumption, high reliability and long lifespan allow purchasers to realize significant energy savings and maintenance reduction over the lifetime of an LED fixture. Recent advances in LED technology have prompted governments to quickly adopt the technology. With energy demand and prices rising, cities, states and countries are quickly moving to LEDs to reduce the demand on their power grid. Consumers are rapidly realizing the benefits as well. LED lights boast durations of tens of thousands of hours. With this longevity, people may not see the LEDs in their fixtures burn out in their lifetime. In fact, the life of an LED is about 100,000 hours or just over 11 years of continuous use. Ecology: Better living without chemistry The long lifetime of an LED leads to fewer bulbs changed, and fewer bulbs thrown away. Because LEDs use electricity very efficiently, greenhouse gas emissions are also reduced. While traditional lighting sources such as fluorescents use chemicals like mercury, LEDs use phosphor and other safe materials without a negative ecological footprint. Fluorescents have specific instructions for disposal, but an LED can simply be recycled. Most lighting sources scatter light in all directions, causing unwanted effects such as over-illumination. An LED is directional, however, shining only up or down, which keeps light pollution out of the air. This reduces the disturbance to natural animal and plant ecosystem cycles, and the adverse effects on humans from excessive exposure to artificial light. Industry: How to win friends and influence color An important advancement in LED technology is the unprecedented ability to fine tune the color points of white light. Lighting designers now apply specific color environments to restaurants, clothing stores, hospitality rooms, museums and other retail spaces knowing that light influences people’s emotions and, therefore, consumer behavior. Shoppers are attracted to an appealing display, and research shows they are more likely to buy well-presented products. In the supermarket, for instance, color-tuned LEDs make tomatoes look redder, bananas more yellow, and bread appear as a rich brown. The color and quality of lighting is also very specific to high-end applications. Healthcare facilities need excellent illumination and color rendering to observe important medical details. Museums want light that accentuates the subtle colors which make artwork compelling.
7. What is LED?
Introduction to LEDs LED lighting offers many advantages over traditional light sources, opening new ways to use light that weren’t possible before. As the technology continues to revolutionize the lighting industry, it’s important to understand how an LED light source works. How does an LED work? LED stands for Light Emitting Diode, and this light source should not be confused with a light fixture or luminaire. An LED is a component of the entire fixture. LED lighting can also be referred to as solid-state lighting (SSL) because an LED is solid-state technology similar to the memory in your computer. LEDs consists of four main parts: die, substrate, phosphor and lens. The LED die is a semiconductor device made of gallium nitride (GaN). When electric current passes through the die, it emits blue light. One or more die are then mounted to a substrate commonly made of aluminum or ceramic. This allows easier integration of the LED into a fixture and provides an efficient way to bring power to the LED. For general lighting applications, white light is generally desired, not blue. In order to achieve the target color, phosphor is used. When the blue light hits phosphor particles, they glow and emit white light. The phosphor can be applied to the die directly, or it can be mixed into the lens material, which typically consists of silicon or glass. The lens extracts and directs the light emitted from the die. A tale of two die: LED configurations There are two standard configurations of an LED—emitters and COBs. An emitter is a single die mounted to a substrate. The emitter is mounted to a circuit board, which is then mounted to a heat sink. This circuit board provides electrical power to the emitter, while also drawing away heat. To help reduce cost and increase light uniformity, researchers discovered that the substrate of the LED can be removed and the die can be mounted directly to the circuit board. This configuration is known as a chip-on-board array, or COB. Four-part harmony of a luminaire The LED configuration is an important part of the luminaire design. A typical LED system has four components: the LED light source, optics, a heat sink and a power supply. An optic is placed over or around the LED, helping extract the light from the die, and forming the scattered light emission into a specified shape. The LED is mounted to a heat sink which diverts and dissipates heat to keep the LED cool. Most LED systems require a DC (direct current) power source. The electricity in a building is typically AC (alternating current) so a power supply is used to convert the AC power to DC power. A cool LED is a happy LED A crucial consideration in LED design is heat transfer. When you put electricity to an LED, some of that energy is converted into light, but the rest turns into heat. As the module heats up, its efficacy drops. The heat sink gets heat out of an array and into the ambient air, so its design is important. If the heat sink is too small for the LED package, it will not dissipate enough heat, which lowers the efficacy and brightness of the LED. A luminaire must be designed to handle the thermal requirements of the LED, keeping the LED cool. About Bridgelux Bridgelux specialize in high-performance COB arrays with easy integration options.
8. Which are the pioneers in developing COB LED?
CITIZEN CO. BRIDGELUX, SHARP LED. These are the earliest delveloper in COB LED ligting application.
9. What kind of lights are the COB LED applied to ?
For small power COB led,like 5-9W can be used on small spotlight. and 15W -20W-30W-40W and be applied to a downlight, and commercial spotlight,and tracklight. for 50W-100W-200W COB, can be used on floodlight, streetlight, etc.
10. General Color Rendering Index for COB LED (CRI)?
Generally, for 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, the CRI is above 80Ra, 90Ra and 95Ra as optional. For 4000K is generally 80Ra, 90ra. And for 5000K ,5600k, 5700K 6500k,is 70RA and 80Ra as better option bin.
11. What are the common Voltages for COB LED
Typically, voltage for COB are 9V, 18V, 36V and 54V. For example, CREE COB LED Series:CXA1304/CXB1304: 9V/18V; CXA1507,CXB1507: 18V/36V Voltage. and the medium high power cob such asCXA1512,CXB1512,CXA1520,CXB1520,CXA1816,CXB1816,CXA1820,CXB1820, CXA1830, CXB1830, CXA2520,CXB2520,CXA2530,CXB2530, CXA2540,CXB2540, CXA3050,CXA3070,CXB3050,CXB3070: 36V Voltage. For the high power series, CXA3590, CXB3590: 36V,77V; CITIZEN COB LED: 1202,1203,1204,1205,1206,1208,1212,1218: 36V; 1818,1825: 54V. SHARP ceramice COB LED: 35V mainly used. BRIDGELUX COB LED: V6: 9V/18V; V8: 18V/35V; VERO 10/V10: 27V; VERO 13/V13: 33V; VERO 18/V18: 30V; VERO 29: 40V; PHILIPS LUMILEDS COB LED: generally 35V is used.
12. What is COB LED?
COB is short for Chip-On-Board, means that multiple chips are packaged on a metal or ceramic board. COB is good in many ways like minimized LES size to focus lightbeam angle. Also, COB LED is generally bining by 2,3 to 5 step of Mac Adam ellipse, to make better light consistency, and to reduce unneccessary stock.

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